A Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly and Annotation for the Clouded Apollo Butterfly (Parnassius mnemosyne): A Species of Global Conservation Concern.

Höglund J, Dias G, Olsen RA, Soares A, Bunikis I, Talla V, Backström N

Genome Biol Evol 16 (2) - [2024-02-01; online 2024-02-18]

The clouded apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne) is a palearctic butterfly distributed over a large part of western Eurasia, but population declines and fragmentation have been observed in many parts of the range. The development of genomic tools can help to shed light on the genetic consequences of the decline and to make informed decisions about direct conservation actions. Here, we present a high-contiguity, chromosome-level genome assembly of a female clouded apollo butterfly and provide detailed annotations of genes and transposable elements. We find that the large genome (1.5 Gb) of the clouded apollo is extraordinarily repeat rich (73%). Despite that, the combination of sequencing techniques allowed us to assemble all chromosomes (nc = 29) to a high degree of completeness. The annotation resulted in a relatively high number of protein-coding genes (22,854) compared with other Lepidoptera, of which a large proportion (21,635) could be assigned functions based on homology with other species. A comparative analysis indicates that overall genome structure has been largely conserved, both within the genus and compared with the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype. The high-quality genome assembly and detailed annotation presented here will constitute an important tool for forthcoming efforts aimed at understanding the genetic consequences of fragmentation and decline, as well as for assessments of genetic diversity, population structure, inbreeding, and genetic load in the clouded apollo butterfly.

Bioinformatics Support and Infrastructure [Collaborative]

Bioinformatics Support, Infrastructure and Training [Collaborative]

NGI Other [Service]

NGI Short read [Service]

NGI Stockholm (Genomics Applications) [Collaborative]

NGI Stockholm (Genomics Production) [Service]

National Genomics Infrastructure [Service]

PubMed 38368625

DOI 10.1093/gbe/evae031

Crossref 10.1093/gbe/evae031

pmc: PMC10901555
pii: 7610114

Publications 9.5.0