Fellström B, Helmersson-Karlqvist J, Lind L, Soveri I, Wu PH, Thulin M, Ärnlöv J, Larsson A
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 40 (2) 71-74 [2020-02-00; online 2019-10-10]
There exists a close relationship between cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. Apolipoprotein A1 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are widely used as cardiovascular risk markers but they also have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any associations between HDL levels and cytokine levels in urine. We randomly selected 90 urine samples from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (41 males and 49 females). The samples were analyzed with 2 multiplex assays, Multiplex Inflammation I and Cardiovascular II kits (Olink Bioscience, Uppsala, Sweden). We analyzed the correlations between 158 cytokines in urine with apolipoprotein A1, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were strong correlations for apolipoprotein A1 and HDL cholesterol with individual cytokines. After adjustment for multiplicity testing, there were 33 significant correlations between apolipoprotein A1 and cytokine levels and 14 of these were also significantly correlated with HDL cholesterol. The strongest associations were observed for IL-1α, SPON2, RAGE, PAR-1, TRAIL-R2, IL-4RA, TNFRSF11A, and SCF. A total of 28 out of 33 correlations were negative, indicating a negative relationship between apolipoprotein A1 and urinary cytokines. The study shows a negative correlation between apolipoprotein A1 and HDL cholesterol and urinary cytokine levels. The finding is in agreement with the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL.