Mishra A, Malik R, Hachiya T, Jürgenson T, Namba S, Posner DC, Kamanu FK, Koido M, Le Grand Q, Shi M, He Y, Georgakis MK, Caro I, Krebs K, Liaw YC, Vaura FC, Lin K, Winsvold BS, Srinivasasainagendra V, Parodi L, Bae HJ, Chauhan G, Chong MR, Tomppo L, Akinyemi R, Roshchupkin GV, Habib N, Jee YH, Thomassen JQ, Abedi V, Cárcel-Márquez J, Nygaard M, Leonard HL, Yang C, Yonova-Doing E, Knol MJ, Lewis AJ, Judy RL, Ago T, Amouyel P, Armstrong ND, Bakker MK, Bartz TM, Bennett DA, Bis JC, Bordes C, Børte S, Cain A, Ridker PM, Cho K, Chen Z, Cruchaga C, Cole JW, de Jager PL, de Cid R, Endres M, Ferreira LE, Geerlings MI, Gasca NC, Gudnason V, Hata J, He J, Heath AK, Ho YL, Havulinna AS, Hopewell JC, Hyacinth HI, Inouye M, Jacob MA, Jeon CE, Jern C, Kamouchi M, Keene KL, Kitazono T, Kittner SJ, Konuma T, Kumar A, Lacaze P, Launer LJ, Lee KJ, Lepik K, Li J, Li L, Manichaikul A, Markus HS, Marston NA, Meitinger T, Mitchell BD, Montellano FA, Morisaki T, Mosley TH, Nalls MA, Nordestgaard BG, O'Donnell MJ, Okada Y, Onland-Moret NC, Ovbiagele B, Peters A, Psaty BM, Rich SS, Rosand J, Sabatine MS, Sacco RL, Saleheen D, Sandset EC, Salomaa V, Sargurupremraj M, Sasaki M, Satizabal CL, Schmidt CO, Shimizu A, Smith NL, Sloane KL, Sutoh Y, Sun YV, Tanno K, Tiedt S, Tatlisumak T, Torres-Aguila NP, Tiwari HK, Trégouët DA, Trompet S, Tuladhar AM, Tybjærg-Hansen A, van Vugt M, Vibo R, Verma SS, Wiggins KL, Wennberg P, Woo D, Wilson PWF, Xu H, Yang Q, Yoon K, COMPASS Consortium , INVENT Consortium , Dutch Parelsnoer Initiative (PSI) Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group , Estonian Biobank , PRECISEQ Consortium , FinnGen Consortium , NINDS Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN) , MEGASTROKE Consortium , SIREN Consortium , China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group , VA Million Veteran Program , International Stroke Genetics Consortium (ISGC) , Biobank Japan , CHARGE Consortium , GIGASTROKE Consortium , Millwood IY, Gieger C, Ninomiya T, Grabe HJ, Jukema JW, Rissanen IL, Strbian D, Kim YJ, Chen PH, Mayerhofer E, Howson JMM, Irvin MR, Adams H, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Christensen K, Ikram MA, Rundek T, Worrall BB, Lathrop GM, Riaz M, Simonsick EM, Kõrv J, França PHC, Zand R, Prasad K, Frikke-Schmidt R, de Leeuw FE, Liman T, Haeusler KG, Ruigrok YM, Heuschmann PU, Longstreth WT, Jung KJ, Bastarache L, Paré G, Damrauer SM, Chasman DI, Rotter JI, Anderson CD, Zwart JA, Niiranen TJ, Fornage M, Liaw YP, Seshadri S, Fernández-Cadenas I, Walters RG, Ruff CT, Owolabi MO, Huffman JE, Milani L, Kamatani Y, Dichgans M, Debette S
Nature 611 (7934) 115-123 [2022-11-00; online 2022-09-30]
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of stroke - the second leading cause of death worldwide - were conducted predominantly in populations of European ancestry1,2. Here, in cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analyses of 110,182 patients who have had a stroke (five ancestries, 33% non-European) and 1,503,898 control individuals, we identify association signals for stroke and its subtypes at 89 (61 new) independent loci: 60 in primary inverse-variance-weighted analyses and 29 in secondary meta-regression and multitrait analyses. On the basis of internal cross-ancestry validation and an independent follow-up in 89,084 additional cases of stroke (30% non-European) and 1,013,843 control individuals, 87% of the primary stroke risk loci and 60% of the secondary stroke risk loci were replicated (P < 0.05). Effect sizes were highly correlated across ancestries. Cross-ancestry fine-mapping, in silico mutagenesis analysis3, and transcriptome-wide and proteome-wide association analyses revealed putative causal genes (such as SH3PXD2A and FURIN) and variants (such as at GRK5 and NOS3). Using a three-pronged approach4, we provide genetic evidence for putative drug effects, highlighting F11, KLKB1, PROC, GP1BA, LAMC2 and VCAM1 as possible targets, with drugs already under investigation for stroke for F11 and PROC. A polygenic score integrating cross-ancestry and ancestry-specific stroke GWASs with vascular-risk factor GWASs (integrative polygenic scores) strongly predicted ischaemic stroke in populations of European, East Asian and African ancestry5. Stroke genetic risk scores were predictive of ischaemic stroke independent of clinical risk factors in 52,600 clinical-trial participants with cardiometabolic disease. Our results provide insights to inform biology, reveal potential drug targets and derive genetic risk prediction tools across ancestries.