Nutrients 15 (14) - [2023-07-24; online 2023-07-24]
Dietary interventions modify gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. Weight reduction and improved glucose and lipid homeostasis were observed after adopting an Okinawan-based Nordic diet (O-BN) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in metabolomics and gut microbiota during O-BN and correlate changes with clinical outcomes. A total of 30 patients (17 women), aged 57.5 ± 8.2 years, diabetes duration 10.4 ± 7.6 years, 90% over-weight, were included. Participants were provided an O-BN for 12 weeks. Before and after intervention, and 16 weeks afterwards, anthropometry and clinical data were estimated and questionnaires were collected, as well as samples of blood and stool. Plasma metabolomics were determined by gas- (GC-MS) or liquid- (LC-MS) chromatography-based mass spectrometry and fecal microbiota determination was based on 16S rRNA amplicons from regions V1-V2. During the intervention, weight (6.8%), waist circumference (6.1%), and levels of glucose, HbA1c, insulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol were decreased. Of 602 metabolites, 323 were changed for any or both periods; 199 (101 lipids) metabolites were decreased while 58 (43 lipids) metabolites were increased during the intervention. Changes in glucose homeostasis were linked to changes in, e.g., 1,5-anhydroglucitol, thyroxine, and chiro-inositol. Changes of microbe beta diversity correlated positively with food components and negatively with IL-18 (p = 0.045). Abundance differences at phylum and genus levels were found. Abundances of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia correlated with anthropometry, HbA1c, lipids, inflammation, and food. Changes in metabolites and microbiota were reversed after the intervention. The O-BN-induced changes in metabolomics and gut microbiota correspond to clinical outcomes of reduced weight and inflammation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism.