Sci Data 11 (1) 18 [2024-01-02; online 2024-01-02]
The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water environments on earth and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients and seasonal dynamics. Although the Baltic Sea has a long history of microscopy-based plankton monitoring, DNA-based metabarcoding has so far mainly been limited to individual transect cruises or time-series of single stations. Here we report a dataset covering spatiotemporal variation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities and physicochemical parameters. Within 13-months between January 2019 and February 2020, 341 water samples were collected at 22 stations during monthly cruises along the salinity gradient. Both salinity and seasonality are strongly reflected in the data. Since the dataset was generated with both metabarcoding and microscopy-based methods, it provides unique opportunities for both technical and ecological analyses, and is a valuable biodiversity reference for future studies, in the prospect of climate change.