Gidlöf O, Evander M, Rezeli M, Marko-Varga G, Laurell T, Erlinge D
Sci Rep 9 (1) 8991 [2019-06-20; online 2019-06-20]
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicron, membrane-enclosed particles that are released from cells in various pathophysiological states. The molecular cargo of these vesicles is considered to reflect the composition of the cell of origin, and the EV proteome is therefore a potential source of biomarkers for various diseases. Our aim was to determine whether EVs isolated from plasma provide additional diagnostic value or improved pathophysiological understanding compared to plasma alone in the context of myocardial infarction (MI). A panel of proximity extension assays (n = 92) was employed to analyze EV lysates and plasma from patients with MI (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 22). After adjustment for multiple comparisons, a total of 11 dysregulated proteins were identified in EVs of MI patients compared to the controls (q < 0.01). Three of these proteins: chymotrypsin C (CTRC), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC (SRC) and C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) were unaltered in the corresponding plasma samples. As biomarkers for MI, rudimentary to no evidence exists for these proteins. In a separate group of patients with varying degrees of coronary artery disease, the decrease in EV-associated (but not plasma-related) SRC levels was confirmed by ELISA. Confirmation of the presence of SRC on EVs of different sizes and cellular origins was performed with ELISA, flow cytometry and nanoparticle tracking analysis. In conclusion, the data revealed that despite a similarity in the EV and plasma proteomes, analysis of isolated EVs does indeed provide additional diagnostic information that cannot be obtained from plasma alone.