The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

Fuchsberger C, Flannick J, Teslovich TM, Mahajan A, Agarwala V, Gaulton KJ, Ma C, Fontanillas P, Moutsianas L, McCarthy DJ, Rivas MA, Perry JR, Sim X, Blackwell TW, Robertson NR, Rayner NW, Cingolani P, Locke AE, Fernandez Tajes J, Highland HM, Dupuis J, Chines PS, Lindgren CM, Hartl C, Jackson AU, Chen H, Huyghe JR, van de Bunt M, Pearson RD, Kumar A, Müller-Nurasyid M, Grarup N, Stringham HM, Gamazon ER, Lee J, Chen Y, Scott RA, Below JE, Chen P, Huang J, Go MJ, Stitzel ML, Pasko D, Parker SC, Varga TV, Green T, Beer NL, Day-Williams AG, Ferreira T, Fingerlin T, Horikoshi M, Hu C, Huh I, Ikram MK, Kim BJ, Kim Y, Kim YJ, Kwon MS, Lee J, Lee S, Lin KH, Maxwell TJ, Nagai Y, Wang X, Welch RP, Yoon J, Zhang W, Barzilai N, Voight BF, Han BG, Jenkinson CP, Kuulasmaa T, Kuusisto J, Manning A, Ng MC, Palmer ND, Balkau B, Stancáková A, Abboud HE, Boeing H, Giedraitis V, Prabhakaran D, Gottesman O, Scott J, Carey J, Kwan P, Grant G, Smith JD, Neale BM, Purcell S, Butterworth AS, Howson JM, Lee HM, Lu Y, Kwak SH, Zhao W, Danesh J, Lam VK, Park KS, Saleheen D, So WY, Tam CH, Afzal U, Aguilar D, Arya R, Aung T, Chan E, Navarro C, Cheng CY, Palli D, Correa A, Curran JE, Rybin D, Farook VS, Fowler SP, Freedman BI, Griswold M, Hale DE, Hicks PJ, Khor CC, Kumar S, Lehne B, Thuillier D, Lim WY, Liu J, van der Schouw YT, Loh M, Musani SK, Puppala S, Scott WR, Yengo L, Tan ST, Taylor HA, Thameem F, Wilson G, Wong TY, Njølstad PR, Levy JC, Mangino M, Bonnycastle LL, Schwarzmayr T, Fadista J, Surdulescu GL, Herder C, Groves CJ, Wieland T, Bork-Jensen J, Brandslund I, Christensen C, Koistinen HA, Doney AS, Kinnunen L, Esko T, Farmer AJ, Hakaste L, Hodgkiss D, Kravic J, Lyssenko V, Hollensted M, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Ladenvall C, Justesen JM, Käräjämäki A, Kriebel J, Rathmann W, Lannfelt L, Lauritzen T, Narisu N, Linneberg A, Melander O, Milani L, Neville M, Orho-Melander M, Qi L, Qi Q, Roden M, Rolandsson O, Swift A, Rosengren AH, Stirrups K, Wood AR, Mihailov E, Blancher C, Carneiro MO, Maguire J, Poplin R, Shakir K, Fennell T, DePristo M, Hrabé de Angelis M, Deloukas P, Gjesing AP, Jun G, Nilsson P, Murphy J, Onofrio R, Thorand B, Hansen T, Meisinger C, Hu FB, Isomaa B, Karpe F, Liang L, Peters A, Huth C, O'Rahilly SP, Palmer CN, Pedersen O, Rauramaa R, Tuomilehto J, Salomaa V, Watanabe RM, Syvänen AC, Bergman RN, Bharadwaj D, Bottinger EP, Cho YS, Chandak GR, Chan JC, Chia KS, Daly MJ, Ebrahim SB, Langenberg C, Elliott P, Jablonski KA, Lehman DM, Jia W, Ma RC, Pollin TI, Sandhu M, Tandon N, Froguel P, Barroso I, Teo YY, Zeggini E, Loos RJ, Small KS, Ried JS, DeFronzo RA, Grallert H, Glaser B, Metspalu A, Wareham NJ, Walker M, Banks E, Gieger C, Ingelsson E, Im HK, Illig T, Franks PW, Buck G, Trakalo J, Buck D, Prokopenko I, Mägi R, Lind L, Farjoun Y, Owen KR, Gloyn AL, Strauch K, Tuomi T, Kooner JS, Lee JY, Park T, Donnelly P, Morris AD, Hattersley AT, Bowden DW, Collins FS, Atzmon G, Chambers JC, Spector TD, Laakso M, Strom TM, Bell GI, Blangero J, Duggirala R, Tai ES, McVean G, Hanis CL, Wilson JG, Seielstad M, Frayling TM, Meigs JB, Cox NJ, Sladek R, Lander ES, Gabriel S, Burtt NP, Mohlke KL, Meitinger T, Groop L, Abecasis G, Florez JC, Scott LJ, Morris AP, Kang HM, Boehnke M, Altshuler D, McCarthy MI

Nature 536 (7614) 41-47 [2016-08-04; online 2016-07-12]

The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.

Bioinformatics Compute and Storage [Service]

NGI Uppsala (SNP&SEQ Technology Platform) [Collaborative]

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PubMed 27398621

DOI 10.1038/nature18642

Crossref 10.1038/nature18642

mid EMS68809

mid NIHMS795012

nature18642

pmc PMC5034897