Nat. Biotechnol. 41 (6) 794-805 [2023-06-00; online 2022-12-19]
Probing histone modifications at a single-cell level in thousands of cells has been enabled by technologies such as single-cell CUT&Tag. Here we describe nano-CUT&Tag (nano-CT), which allows simultaneous mapping of up to three epigenomic modalities at single-cell resolution using nanobody-Tn5 fusion proteins. Multimodal nano-CT is compatible with starting materials as low as 25,000-200,000 cells and has significantly higher sensitivity and number of fragments per cell than single-cell CUT&Tag. We use nano-CT to simultaneously profile chromatin accessibility, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 in juvenile mouse brain, allowing for discrimination of more cell types and states than unimodal single-cell CUT&Tag. We also infer chromatin velocity between assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC) and H3K27ac in the oligodendrocyte lineage and deconvolute H3K27me3 repressive states, finding two sequential waves of H3K27me3 repression at distinct gene modules during oligodendrocyte lineage progression. Given its high resolution, versatility, and multimodal features, nano-CT allows unique insights in epigenetic landscapes in complex biological systems at the single-cell level.