Malina C, Yu R, Björkeroth J, Kerkhoven EJ, Nielsen J
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118 (51) - [2021-12-21; online 2021-12-15]
Aerobic fermentation, also referred to as the Crabtree effect in yeast, is a well-studied phenomenon that allows many eukaryal cells to attain higher growth rates at high glucose availability. Not all yeasts exhibit the Crabtree effect, and it is not known why Crabtree-negative yeasts can grow at rates comparable to Crabtree-positive yeasts. Here, we quantitatively compared two Crabtree-positive yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and two Crabtree-negative yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Scheffersomyces stipitis, cultivated under glucose excess conditions. Combining physiological and proteome quantification with genome-scale metabolic modeling, we found that the two groups differ in energy metabolism and translation efficiency. In Crabtree-positive yeasts, the central carbon metabolism flux and proteome allocation favor a glucose utilization strategy minimizing proteome cost as proteins translation parameters, including ribosomal content and/or efficiency, are lower. Crabtree-negative yeasts, however, use a strategy of maximizing ATP yield, accompanied by higher protein translation parameters. Our analyses provide insight into the underlying reasons for the Crabtree effect, demonstrating a coupling to adaptations in both metabolism and protein translation.