Debiais-Thibaud M, Simion P, Ventéo S, Muñoz D, Marcellini S, Mazan S, Haitina T
Mol. Biol. Evol. 36 (10) 2265-2276 [2019-10-01; online 2019-07-05]
In order to characterize the molecular bases of mineralizing cell evolution, we targeted type X collagen, a nonfibrillar network forming collagen encoded by the Col10a1 gene. It is involved in the process of endochondral ossification in ray-finned fishes and tetrapods (Osteichthyes), but until now unknown in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes). We show that holocephalans and elasmobranchs have respectively five and six tandemly duplicated Col10a1 gene copies that display conserved genomic synteny with osteichthyan Col10a1 genes. All Col10a1 genes in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula are expressed in ameloblasts and/or odontoblasts of teeth and scales, during the stages of extracellular matrix protein secretion and mineralization. Only one duplicate is expressed in the endoskeletal (vertebral) mineralizing tissues. We also show that the expression of type X collagen is present in teeth of two osteichthyans, the zebrafish Danio rerio and the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis, indicating an ancestral jawed vertebrate involvement of type X collagen in odontode formation. Our findings push the origin of Col10a1 gene prior to the divergence of osteichthyans and chondrichthyans, and demonstrate its ancestral association with mineralization of both the odontode skeleton and the endoskeleton.