Darin N, Leckström K, Sikora P, Lindgren J, Almén G, Asin-Cayuela J
Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 26 (6) 808-817 [2018-06-00; online 2018-02-26]
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency (glutathionuria, OMIM 231950) is a rare disease, with only six patients reported in the literature, although this condition has probably been underdiagnosed due the difficulty to routinely analyze glutathione in clinical samples and to the fact that no genetic defect has been coupled to the disease so far. We report two siblings with mild psychomotor developmental delay and mild neurological symptoms, who presented a markedly increased excretion of glutathione in urine and a very low γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in serum. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a 16.9 kb homozygous deletion in GGT1, one of the genes encoding enzymes with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the human genome. Close analysis revealed the presence of a 13 bp insertion at the deletion junction. This is the first report of a genetic variant as the cause of glutathionuria. In addition, genetic characterization of the patients' parents and a healthy sibling has provided direct genetic evidence regarding the autosomal recessive nature of this disease.