Petersen I, Pedersen NL, Rantanen T, Kremen WS, Johnson W, Panizzon MS, Christiansen L, Franz CE, McGue M, Christensen K, Hamdi NR, Krueger RF, Reynolds C
Behav. Genet. 46 (1) 20-30 [2016-01-00; online 2015-09-01]
Age-related decline in grip strength predicts later life disability, frailty, lower well-being and cognitive change. While grip strength is heritable, genetic influence on change in grip strength has been relatively ignored, with non-shared environmental influence identified as the primary contributor in a single longitudinal study. The extent to which gene-environment interplay, particularly gene-environment interactions, contributes to grip trajectories has yet to be examined. We considered longitudinal grip strength measurements in seven twin studies of aging in the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies consortium. Growth curve parameters were estimated for same-sex pairs, aged 34-99 (N = 10,681). Fisher's test for mixture distribution of within-monozygotic twin-pair differences (N = 1724) was performed on growth curve parameters. We observed significant gene-environment interaction on grip strength trajectories. Finally, we compared the variability of within-pair differences of growth curve parameters by APOE haplotypes. Though not statistically significant, the results suggested that APOE ɛ2ɛ2/ɛ2ɛ3 haplotypes might buffer environmental influences on grip strength trajectories.