Mazzurana L, Czarnewski P, Jonsson V, Wigge L, Ringnér M, Williams TC, Ravindran A, Björklund ÅK, Säfholm J, Nilsson G, Dahlén SE, Orre AC, Al-Ameri M, Höög C, Hedin C, Szczegielniak S, Almer S, Mjösberg J
Cell Res 31 (5) 554-568 [2021-05-00; online 2021-01-08]
The impact of the microenvironment on innate lymphoid cell (ILC)-mediated immunity in humans remains largely unknown. Here we used full-length Smart-seq2 single-cell RNA-sequencing to unravel tissue-specific transcriptional profiles and heterogeneity of CD127+ ILCs across four human tissues. Correlation analysis identified gene modules characterizing the migratory properties of tonsil and blood ILCs, and signatures of tissue-residency, activation and modified metabolism in colon and lung ILCs. Trajectory analysis revealed potential differentiation pathways from circulating and tissue-resident naïve ILCs to a spectrum of mature ILC subsets. In the lung we identified both CRTH2+ and CRTH2- ILC2 with lung-specific signatures, which could be recapitulated by alarmin-exposure of circulating ILC2. Finally, we describe unique TCR-V(D)J-rearrangement patterns of blood ILC1-like cells, revealing a subset of potentially immature ILCs with TCR-δ rearrangement. Our study provides a useful resource for in-depth understanding of ILC-mediated immunity in humans, with implications for disease.