J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 106 (11) 3265-3282 [2021-10-21; online 2021-06-26]
The genomic and transcriptomic landscape of widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (wiFTCs) and Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) are poorly characterized, and subsets of these tumors lack information on genetic driver events. The aim of this study was to bridge this gap. We performed whole-genome and RNA sequencing and subsequent bioinformatic analyses of 11 wiFTCs and 2 HCCs with a particularly poor prognosis, and matched normal tissue. All wiFTCs exhibited one or several mutations in established thyroid cancer genes, including TERT (n = 4), NRAS (n = 3), HRAS, KRAS, AKT, PTEN, PIK3CA, MUTYH, TSHR, and MEN1 (n = 1 each). MutSig2CV analysis revealed recurrent somatic mutations in FAM72D (n = 3, in 2 wiFTCs and in a single HCC), TP53 (n = 3, in 2 wiFTCs and a single HCC), and EIF1AX (n = 3), with DGCR8 (n = 2) as borderline significant. The DGCR8 mutations were recurrent p.E518K missense alterations, known to cause familial multinodular goiter via disruption of microRNA (miRNA) processing. Expression analyses showed reduced DGCR8 messenger RNA expression in FTCs in general, and the 2 DGCR8 mutants displayed a distinct miRNA profile compared to DGCR8 wild-types. Copy number analyses revealed recurrent gains on chromosomes 4, 6, and 10, and fusion gene analyses revealed 27 high-quality events. Both HCCs displayed hyperploidy, which was fairly unusual in the FTC cohort. Based on the transcriptome data, tumors amassed in 2 principal clusters. We describe the genomic and transcriptomic landscape in wiFTCs and HCCs and identify novel recurrent mutations and copy number alterations with possible driver properties and lay the foundation for future studies.