Yang M, Johnsson P, Bräutigam L, Yang XR, Thrane K, Gao J, Tobin NP, Zhou Y, Yu R, Nagy N, Engström PG, Tuominen R, Eriksson H, Lundeberg J, Tucker MA, Goldstein AM, Egyhazi-Brage S, Zhao J, Cao Y, Höiom V
Genet Med 24 (1) 157-169 [2022-01-00; online 2021-11-30]
More than half of the familial cutaneous melanomas have unknown genetic predisposition. This study aims at characterizing a novel melanoma susceptibility gene. We performed exome and targeted sequencing in melanoma-prone families without any known melanoma susceptibility genes. We analyzed the expression of candidate gene DENND5A in melanoma samples in relation to pigmentation and UV signature. Functional studies were carried out using microscopic approaches and zebrafish model. We identified a novel DENND5A truncating variant that segregated with melanoma in a Swedish family and 2 additional rare DENND5A variants, 1 of which segregated with the disease in an American family. We found that DENND5A is significantly enriched in pigmented melanoma tissue. Our functional studies show that loss of DENND5A function leads to decrease in melanin content in vitro and pigmentation defects in vivo. Mechanistically, harboring the truncating variant or being suppressed leads to DENND5A losing its interaction with SNX1 and its ability to transport the SNX1-associated vesicles from melanosomes. Consequently, untethered SNX1-premelanosome protein and redundant tyrosinase are redirected to lysosomal degradation by default, causing decrease in melanin content. Our findings provide evidence of a physiological role of DENND5A in the skin context and link its variants to melanoma susceptibility.