Deficits in attention, motor control and perception childhood to age 30 years: prospective case-control study of outcome predictors.

Landgren V, Fernell E, Gillberg C, Landgren M, Johnson M

BMJ Open 12 (3) e054424 [2022-03-17; online 2022-03-17]

Investigate predictors of adverse outcome in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at 6 years of age. Prospective population-based cohort study. Western Sweden. From a screening-based population cohort of 589 individuals, 62 (11 female) diagnosed with ADHD+DCD at mean age 6.6 years, and a comparison group of 51 population-matched (10 female) children were followed prospectively. Drawn from a clinical reassessment at age 9 years of 110 of the 113 individuals, neuropsychiatric symptoms, continuous performance test results and measures of motor function were used as predictors of outcome in linear regression models. Participants were followed in national registers up to 30-31 years of age for outcomes in adulthood. Predictors were regressed onto an adverse outcome score (range 0-7) comprising seven binary endpoints, and when applicable onto each continuous outcome separately (low educational attainment, low occupation level, psychiatric disorder, psychotropic medication prescription, sick pension, high dependence on social benefits and criminal conviction). Of the 110 individuals, 3 had died. In univariable regression onto the adverse outcome score, the strongest predictors at age 9 years were symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD and motor dysfunction, with an R2 around 25%, followed by autistic traits (R2=15%) and depressive symptoms (R2=8%). Combining these six strongest predictors in a multivariable model yielded an adjusted R2=38%. Subgroup analyses were similar, except for a strong association of autistic traits with the adverse outcome score in females (n=20, R2=50%). Several neurodevelopmental symptoms, including ADHD severity at age 9 years, accounted for a considerable amount of the variance in terms of adulthood adverse outcome. Broad neurodevelopmental profiling irrespective of diagnostic thresholds should inform research and clinical practice. The study highlights the importance of considering associated comorbidities and problems in ADHD.

Clinical Genomics Gothenburg [Service]

PubMed 35301207

DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054424

Crossref 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054424

pmc: PMC8932285
pii: bmjopen-2021-054424

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