Marabita F, James T, Karhu A, Virtanen H, Kettunen K, Stenlund H, Boulund F, Hellström C, Neiman M, Mills R, Perheentupa T, Laivuori H, Helkkula P, Byrne M, Jokinen I, Honko H, Kallonen A, Ermes M, Similä H, Lindholm M, Widén E, Ripatti S, Perälä-Heape M, Engstrand L, Nilsson P, Moritz T, Miettinen T, Sallinen R, Kallioniemi O
Cell Syst - (-) - [2021-11-30; online 2021-11-30]
We explored opportunities for personalized and predictive health care by collecting serial clinical measurements, health surveys, genomics, proteomics, autoantibodies, metabolomics, and gut microbiome data from 96 individuals who participated in a data-driven health coaching program over a 16-month period with continuous digital monitoring of activity and sleep. We generated a resource of >20,000 biological samples from this study and a compendium of >53 million primary data points for 558,032 distinct features. Multiomics factor analysis revealed distinct and independent molecular factors linked to obesity, diabetes, liver function, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, immunity, exercise, diet, and hormonal effects. For example, ethinyl estradiol, a common oral contraceptive, produced characteristic molecular and physiological effects, including increased levels of inflammation and impact on thyroid, cortisol levels, and pulse, that were distinct from other sources of variability observed in our study. In total, this work illustrates the value of combining deep molecular and digital monitoring of human health. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.