Matsson EM, Eriksson UG, Palm JE, Artursson P, Karlgren M, Lazorova L, Brännström M, Ekdahl A, Dunér K, Knutson L, Johansson S, Schützer K, Lennernäs H
Mol. Pharm. 10 (11) 4252-4262 [2013-11-04; online 2013-10-02]
Two clinical trials and a large set of in vitro transporter experiments were performed to investigate if the hepatobiliary disposition of the direct thrombin inhibitor prodrug AZD0837 is the mechanism for the drug-drug interaction with ketoconazole observed in a previous clinical study. In Study 1, [(3)H]AZD0837 was administered to healthy male volunteers (n = 8) to quantify and identify the metabolites excreted in bile. Bile was sampled directly from the jejunum by duodenal aspiration via an oro-enteric tube. In Study 2, the effect of ketoconazole on the plasma and bile pharmacokinetics of AZD0837, the intermediate metabolite (AR-H069927), and the active form (AR-H067637) was investigated (n = 17). Co-administration with ketoconazole elevated the plasma exposure to AZD0837 and the active form approximately 2-fold compared to placebo, which may be explained by inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism and reduced biliary clearance, respectively. High concentrations of the active form was measured in bile with a bile-to-plasma AUC ratio of approximately 75, indicating involvement of transporter-mediated excretion of the compound. AZD0837 and its metabolites were further investigated as substrates of hepatic uptake and efflux transporters in vitro. Studies in MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing membrane vesicles identified AZD0837, the intermediate, and the active form as substrates of P-gp. The active form was also identified as a substrate of the multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) transporter and the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), in HEK cells transfected with the respective transporter. Ketoconazole was shown to inhibit all of these three transporters; in particular, inhibition of P-gp and MATE1 occurred in a clinically relevant concentration range. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary transport pathways of AZD0837 and its metabolites were identified in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of the canalicular transporters P-gp and MATE1 may lead to enhanced plasma exposure to the active form, which could, at least in part, explain the clinical interaction with ketoconazole.
Uppsala Drug Optimization and Pharmaceutical Profiling (UDOPP) ADME of Therapeutics (UDOPP)