Nikpour M, Nilsson J, Persson A, Noborn F, Vorontsov E, Larson G
Glycobiology 31 (8) 916-930 [2021-09-09; online 2021-05-18]
Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) or heparan sulfate (HS), attached to serine residues. We have earlier shown that prohormones can carry CS, constituting a novel class of PGs. The mapping of GAG modifications of proteins in endocrine cells may thus assist us in delineating possible roles of PGs in endocrine cellular physiology. With this aim, we applied a glycoproteomic approach to identify PGs, their GAG chains and their attachment sites in insulin-secreting cells. Glycopeptides carrying GAG chains were enriched from human pancreatic islets, rat (INS-1 832/13) and mouse (MIN6, NIT-1) insulinoma cell lines by exchange chromatography, depolymerized with GAG lyases, and analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We identified CS modifications of chromogranin-A (CgA), islet amyloid polypeptide, secretogranin-1 and secretogranin-2, immunoglobulin superfamily member 10, and protein AMBP. Additionally, we identified two HS-modified prohormones (CgA and secretogranin-1), which was surprising, as prohormones are not typically regarded as HSPGs. For CgA, the glycosylation site carried either CS or HS, making it a so-called hybrid site. Additional HS sites were found on syndecan-1, syndecan-4, nerurexin-2, protein NDNF and testican-1. These results demonstrate that several prohormones, and other constituents of the insulin-secreting cells are PGs. Cell-targeted mapping of the GAG glycoproteome forms an important basis for better understanding of endocrine cellular physiology, and the novel CS and HS sites presented here provide important knowledge for future studies.