Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) Mediates Increased Inflammation and Colonization of Bladder Epithelial Cells during a Uropathogenic E. coli Infection In Vitro.

Wu R, Kumawat AK, Demirel I

Pathogens 12 (4) - [2023-03-27; online 2023-03-27]

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in humans and are often caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a proinflammatory metabolite that has been linked to vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease. As of today, no studies have investigated the effects of TMAO on infectious diseases like UTIs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TMAO can aggravate bacterial colonization and the release of inflammatory mediators from bladder epithelial cells during a UPEC infection. We found that TMAO aggravated the release of several key cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1 and CXCL6) from bladder epithelial cells during a CFT073 infection. We also found that CFT073 and TMAO mediate increased release of IL-8 from bladder epithelial cells via ERK 1/2 signaling and not bacterial growth. Furthermore, we showed that TMAO enhances UPEC colonization of bladder epithelial cells. The data suggest that TMAO may also play a role in infectious diseases. Our results can be the basis of further research to investigate the link between diet, gut microbiota, and urinary tract infection.

Affinity Proteomics Uppsala [Service]

PubMed 37111409

DOI 10.3390/pathogens12040523

Crossref 10.3390/pathogens12040523

pmc: PMC10141729
pii: pathogens12040523

Publications 9.5.0