Nat. Rev. Genet. 23 (12) 741-759 [2022-12-00; online 2022-07-20]
Improved scale, multiplexing and resolution are establishing spatial nucleic acid and protein profiling methods as a major pillar for cellular atlas building of complex samples, from tissues to full organisms. Emerging methods yield omics measurements at resolutions covering the nano- to microscale, enabling the charting of cellular heterogeneity, complex tissue architectures and dynamic changes during development and disease. We present an overview of the developing landscape of in situ spatial genome, transcriptome and proteome technologies, exemplify their impact on cell biology and translational research, and discuss current challenges for their community-wide adoption. Among many transformative applications, we envision that spatial methods will map entire organs and enable next-generation pathology.