Grochowski CM, Krepischi ACV, Eisfeldt J, Du H, Bertola DR, Oliveira D, Costa SS, Lupski JR, Lindstrand A, Carvalho CMB
Front Genet 12 (-) 708348 [2021-08-26; online 2021-08-26]
Chromoanagenesis is a descriptive term that encompasses classes of catastrophic mutagenic processes that generate localized and complex chromosome rearrangements in both somatic and germline genomes. Herein, we describe a 5-year-old female presenting with a constellation of clinical features consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome 1 (CSS1). Initial G-banded karyotyping detected a 90-Mb pericentric and a 47-Mb paracentric inversion on a single chromosome. Subsequent analysis of short-read whole-genome sequencing data and genomic optical mapping revealed additional inversions, all clustered on chromosome 6, one of them disrupting ARID1B for which haploinsufficiency leads to the CSS1 disease trait (MIM:135900). The aggregate structural variant data show that the resolved, the resolved derivative chromosome architecture presents four de novo inversions, one pericentric and three paracentric, involving six breakpoint junctions in what appears to be a shuffling of genomic material on this chromosome. Each junction was resolved to nucleotide-level resolution with mutational signatures suggestive of non-homologous end joining. The disruption of the gene ARID1B is shown to occur between the fourth and fifth exon of the canonical transcript with subsequent qPCR studies confirming a decrease in ARID1B expression in the patient versus healthy controls. Deciphering the underlying genomic architecture of chromosomal rearrangements and complex structural variants may require multiple technologies and can be critical to elucidating the molecular etiology of a patient's clinical phenotype or resolving unsolved Mendelian disease cases.