Wendel U, Persson N, Risinger C, Bengtsson E, Nodin B, Danielsson L, Welinder C, Nordin Fredrikson G, Jansson B, Blixt O
PLoS ONE 13 (2) e0191872 [2018-02-08; online 2018-02-08]
Advanced glycation end products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between proteins and carbohydrates, causing irreversible lysine and arginine alterations that severely affect protein structure and function. The resulting modifications induce inflammation by binding to scavenger receptors. An increase in advanced glycation end products is observed in a number of diseases e.g. atherosclerosis and cancer. Since advanced glycation end products also are present in healthy individuals, their detection and quantification are of great importance for usage as potential biomarkers. Current methods for advanced glycation end product detection are though limited and solely measure total glycation. This study describes a new epitope-mapped single chain variable fragment, D1-B2, against carboxymethyllysine, produced from a phage library that was constructed from mouse immunizations. The phage library was selected against advanced glycation end product targets using a phage display platform. Characterization of its binding pattern was performed using large synthetic glycated peptide and protein libraries displayed on microarray slides. D1-B2 showed a preference for an aspartic acid, three positions N-terminally from a carboxymethyllysine residue and also bound to a broad collection of glycated proteins. Positive immunohistochemical staining of mouse atherosclerotic plaques and of a tissue microarray of human pancreatic tumors confirmed the usability of the new scFv for advanced glycation end product detection in tissues. This study demonstrates a promising methodology for high-throughput generation of epitope-mapped monoclonal antibodies against AGE.