Yamada P, Paetow A, Chan M, Arslan A, Landberg R, Young BK
J Perinat Med 50 (4) 411-418 [2022-05-25; online 2022-01-03]
Contemporary obstetrics has begun to appreciate the importance of diet in pregnancy, but guidelines are not based on robust data. The hypothesis that a whole grains diet improves pregnancy outcomes is tested in this study. We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes for a pregnancy diet containing 75% of total carbohydrates as refined grains with outcomes for a diet with 75% of total carbohydrates as whole grains. This was a randomized interventional study in a clinic population over the last 4-7 months of normal pregnancy with extensive compliance measures. Besides obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, anthropometric measurements were done. In addition to food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), total plasma alkyl resorcinols, a unique quantitative measure of whole grains, were used as a measure of whole grain consumption. The data show effective compliance and no difference in outcomes between the diets with regard to maternal weight gain, birth weights, subcutaneous fat and glucose tolerance. Ensuring compliance to a proper pregnancy diet resulted in satisfactory weight gain and normal outcomes even when the proportion of whole grains consumed is only 25% of total carbohydrates.