PLoS ONE 16 (4) e0249830 [2021-04-08; online 2021-04-08]
Sex-differences in the pathobiology of myocardial infarction are well established but incompletely understood. Improved knowledge on this topic may help clinicians to improve management of men and women with myocardial infarction. In this registry-based cohort study (SWEDEHEART), we analyzed 175 circulating biomarkers reflecting various pathobiological axes in 856 men and 243 women admitted to Swedish coronary care units because of myocardial infarction. Two multimarker panels were applied (Proximity Extension Assay [Olink Bioscience], Multiple Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry). Lasso analysis (penalized logistic regression), multiple testing-corrected Mann-Whitney tests and Cox regressions were used to assess sex-differences in the concentrations of these biomarkers and their implications on all-cause mortality and major adverse events (median follow-up up to 6.6 years). Biomarkers provided a very high discrimination between both sexes, when considered simultaneously (c-statistics 0.972). Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of six biomarkers with the most pronounced differences seen for those reflecting atherogenesis, myocardial necrosis and metabolism. Women had higher concentrations of 14 biomarkers with the most pronounced differences seen for those reflecting activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, inflammation and for adipokines. There were no major variations between sexes in the associations of these biomarkers with outcome. Severable sex-differences exist in the expression of biomarkers in patients with myocardial infarction. While these differences had no impact on outcome, our data suggest the presence of various sex-related pathways involved in the development of coronary atherosclerosis, the progression to plaque rupture and acute myocardial damage, with a greater heterogeneity in women.