Exposure to nonanoic acid alters small intestinal neuroendocrine tumor phenotype.

Almobarak B, Amlani V, Inge L, Hofving T, Muth A, Nilsson O, Johansson M, Arvidsson Y, Elias E

BMC Cancer 23 (1) 267 [2023-03-23; online 2023-03-23]

Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NET) are highly differentiated and genetically stable malignant tumors, yet they often present with advanced metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis. In contrast to many other types of malignant tumors, primary SI-NET are often asymptomatic and typically smaller in size compared to adjacent lymph node metastases. This study explores the hypothesis that stimulating the chemosensing olfactory receptor 51E1 (OR51E1) decreases SI-NET proliferation suggesting a mechanism that explains a difference in proliferative rate based on tumor location. Clinical data was used to address difference in tumor size depending on location. A SI-NET tissue microarray was used to evaluate expression of OR51E1 and olfactory marker protein (OMP). Primary cultured tumor cells from 5 patients were utilized to determine the effect of OR51E1 agonist nonanoic acid on metabolic activity. The SI-NET cell line GOT1 was used to determine effects of nonanoic acid on the transcriptome as well as long-term effects of nonanoic acid exposure with regards to cell proliferation, serotonin secretion, alterations of the cell-cycle and morphology. Tumor size differed significantly based on location. OR51E1 and OMP were generally expressed in SI-NET. Primary SI-NET cells responded to nonanoic acid with a dose dependent altered metabolic activity and this was replicated in the GOT1 cell line but not in the MCF10A control cell line. Nonanoic acid treatment in GOT1 cells upregulated transcripts related to neuroendocrine differentiation and hormone secretion. Long-term nonanoic acid treatment of GOT1 cells decreased proliferation, induced senescence, and altered cell morphology. Our results raise the possibility that exposure of intraluminal metabolites could represent a mechanism determining aspects of the SI-NET tumor phenotype. However, we could not causally link the observed effects of nonanoic acid exposure to the OR51E1 receptor.

Clinical Genomics Gothenburg [Service]

PubMed 36959559

DOI 10.1186/s12885-023-10722-8

Crossref 10.1186/s12885-023-10722-8

pmc: PMC10035137
pii: 10.1186/s12885-023-10722-8

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