Ekvall S, Hagenäs L, Allanson J, Annerén G, Bondeson ML
Am. J. Med. Genet. A 155A (6) 1217-1224 [2011-06-00; online 2011-05-07]
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a heterogeneous disorder caused by activating mutations in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. It is associated with variable clinical expression including short stature, congenital heart defect, unusual pectus deformity, and typical facial features and the inheritance is autosomal dominant. Here, we present a clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair phenotype and additional features including mild psychomotor developmental delay, osteoporosis, gingival hyperplasia, spinal neuroblastoma, intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and liver hemangioma. Mutation analysis of PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, NRAS, and SHOC2 was conducted, revealing a co-occurrence of two heterozygous previously identified mutations in the index patient. The mutation SHOC2 c.4A > G; p.Ser2Gly represents a de novo mutation, whereas, PTPN11 c.1226G > C; p.Gly409Ala was inherited from the mother and also identified in the brother. The mother and the brother present with some NS manifestations, such as short stature, delayed puberty, keratosis pilaris, café-au-lait spots, refraction error (mother), and undescended testis (brother), but no NS facial features, supporting the notion that the PTPN11 p.Gly409Ala mutation leads to a relatively mild phenotype. We propose that, the atypical phenotype of the young woman with NS reported here is an additive effect, where the PTPN11 mutation acts as a modifier. Interestingly, co-occurrence of RAS-MAPK mutations has been previously identified in a few patients with variable NS or neurofibromatosis-NS phenotypes. Taken together, the results suggest that co-occurrence of mutations or modifying loci in the RAS-MAPK pathway may contribute to the clinical variability observed among NS patients.