Liu HY, Giraud A, Seignez C, Ahl D, Guo F, Sedin J, Walden T, Oh JH, van Pijkeren JP, Holm L, Roos S, Bertilsson S, Phillipson M
Microbiome 9 (1) 198 [2021-10-03; online 2021-10-03]
Intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) form unique niches for bacteria-immune cell interactions that direct host immunity and shape the microbiome. Here we investigate how peroral administration of probiotic bacterium Limosilactobacillus reuteri R2LC affects B lymphocytes and IgA induction in the PPs, as well as the downstream consequences on intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to inflammation. The B cells of PPs were separated by size to circumvent activation-dependent cell identification biases due to dynamic expression of markers, which resulted in two phenotypically, transcriptionally, and spatially distinct subsets: small IgD+/GL7-/S1PR1+/Bcl6, CCR6-expressing pre-germinal center (GC)-like B cells with innate-like functions located subepithelially, and large GL7+/S1PR1-/Ki67+/Bcl6, CD69-expressing B cells with strong metabolic activity found in the GC. Peroral L. reuteri administration expanded both B cell subsets and enhanced the innate-like properties of pre-GC-like B cells while retaining them in the sub-epithelial compartment by increased sphingosine-1-phosphate/S1PR1 signaling. Furthermore, L. reuteri promoted GC-like B cell differentiation, which involved expansion of the GC area and autocrine TGFβ-1 activation. Consequently, PD-1-T follicular helper cell-dependent IgA induction and production was increased by L. reuteri, which shifted the intestinal microbiome and protected against dextran-sulfate-sodium induced colitis and dysbiosis. The Peyer's patches sense, enhance and transmit probiotic signals by increasing the numbers and effector functions of distinct B cell subsets, resulting in increased IgA production, altered intestinal microbiota, and protection against inflammation. Video abstract.