Bos MM, Noordam R, Bennett K, Beekman M, Mook-Kanamori DO, Willems van Dijk K, Slagboom PE, Lundstedt T, Surowiec I, van Heemst D
Metabolomics 16 (3) 35 [2020-03-02; online 2020-03-02]
Several plasma metabolites have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to identify plasma metabolites associated with different indices of early disturbances in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a subsample of the Leiden Longevity Study comprising individuals without a history of diabetes mellitus (n = 233) with a mean age of 63.3 ± 6.7 years of which 48.1% were men. We tested for associations of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, Matsuda Index, Insulinogenic Index and glycated hemoglobin with metabolites (Swedish Metabolomics Platform) using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results were validated internally using an independent metabolomics platform (Biocrates platform) and replicated externally in the independent Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (Metabolon platform) (n = 545, mean age of 55.8 ± 6.0 years of which 48.6% were men). Moreover, in the NEO study, we replicated our analyses in individuals with diabetes mellitus (cases: n = 36; controls = 561). Out of the 34 metabolites, a total of 12 plasma metabolites were associated with different indices of disturbances in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in individuals without diabetes mellitus. These findings were validated using a different metabolomics platform as well as in an independent cohort of non-diabetics. Moreover, tyrosine, alanine, valine, tryptophan and alpha-ketoglutaric acid levels were higher in individuals with diabetes mellitus. We found several plasma metabolites that are associated with early disturbances in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity of which five were also higher in individuals with diabetes mellitus.