Jin C, Teneberg S
J. Biol. Chem. 298 (4) 101732 [2022-04-00; online 2022-02-15]
Changes in glycosphingolipid structures have been shown to occur during the development of several types of human cancers, generating cancer-specific carbohydrate structures that could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic targeting. In this study, we characterized nonacid glycosphingolipids isolated from a human gastric adenocarcinoma by mass spectrometry, enzymatic hydrolysis, and by binding with a battery of carbohydrate-recognizing ligands. We show that the majority of the complex nonacid glycosphingolipids had type 2 (Galβ4GlcNAc) core chains (neolactotetraosylceramide, the Lex, H type 2, x2, and the P1 pentaosylceramides, and the Ley, A type 2, and neolacto hexaosylceramides). We also found glycosphingolipids with type 1 (Galβ3GlcNAc) core (lactotetraosylceramide and the H type 1 pentaosylceramide) and globo (GalαGal) core chains (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide). Interestingly, we characterized two complex glycosphingolipids as a P1 heptaosylceramide (Galα4Galβ4GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAcβ3Gal β4Glcβ1Cer) and a branched P1 decaosylceramide (Galα4Gal β4GlcNAcβ3(Galα4Galβ4GlcNAcβ6)Galβ4GlcNAcβ3Galβ4Glc β1Cer). These are novel glycosphingolipid structures and the first reported cases of complex glycosphingolipids larger than pentaosylceramide carrying the P1 trisaccharide. We propose that these P1 glycosphingolipids may represent potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.