Dussex N, Alberti F, Heino MT, Olsen R, van der Valk T, Ryman N, Laikre L, Ahlgren H, Askeyev IV, Askeyev OV, Shaymuratova DN, Askeyev AO, Döppes D, Friedrich R, Lindauer S, Rosendahl W, Aspi J, Hofreiter M, Lidén K, Dalén L, Díez-Del-Molino D
BMC Genomics 21 (1) 854 [2020-12-02; online 2020-12-02]
Numerous megafauna species from northern latitudes went extinct during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition as a result of climate-induced habitat changes. However, several ungulate species managed to successfully track their habitats during this period to eventually flourish and recolonise the holarctic regions. So far, the genomic impacts of these climate fluctuations on ungulates from high latitudes have been little explored. Here, we assemble a de-novo genome for the European moose (Alces alces) and analyse it together with re-sequenced nuclear genomes and ancient and modern mitogenomes from across the moose range in Eurasia and North America. We found that moose demographic history was greatly influenced by glacial cycles, with demographic responses to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition similar to other temperate ungulates. Our results further support that modern moose lineages trace their origin back to populations that inhabited distinct glacial refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Finally, we found that present day moose in Europe and North America show low to moderate inbreeding levels resulting from post-glacial bottlenecks and founder effects, but no evidence for recent inbreeding resulting from human-induced population declines. Taken together, our results highlight the dynamic recent evolutionary history of the moose and provide an important resource for further genomic studies.