Plants (Basel) 11 (14) - [2022-07-19; online 2022-07-19]
Cyclotides are macrocycle peptides produced by plants from several families, including Violaceae. These compounds have the potential for applications in medicine, bioengineering and crop protection thanks to their multiple biological activities. In most cases, cyclotides are extracted from plant material. Plant cell culture provides a viable and sustainable form of plant biomass production Cyclotides are host defense peptides. The aim of the current study was to test whether different plant stress hormones and biological elicitors have effects on cyclotide production in Viola uliginosa suspension cultures. Different concentrations of jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and neutralized pathogens were tested. The cyclotide production was assessed using MALDI-MS. Five major peptides produced by V. uliginosa cultures were chosen for analysis, of which one was sequenced de novo. The treatments had little influence on the suspension's growth, with the exception of 100 μM SA, which enhanced the biomass increase, and 100 μM ABA, which was toxic. Significant increases in the production of three cyclotides (viul M, cyO13 and cyO3) were observed in suspensions primed with JA (50 μM, 100 μM, 200 μM) after 14 days of culturing. Biotic elicitors had no observable effect on cyclotide production. The current study indicates that some cyclotides in V. uliginosa are triggered in response to JA. The stress plant hormones can be used to enhance plant cell culture-based production systems.