Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over 1 million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences.

Karlsson Linnér R, Biroli P, Kong E, Meddens SFW, Wedow R, Fontana MA, Lebreton M, Tino SP, Abdellaoui A, Hammerschlag AR, Nivard MG, Okbay A, Rietveld CA, Timshel PN, Trzaskowski M, Vlaming R, Zünd CL, Bao Y, Buzdugan L, Caplin AH, Chen CY, Eibich P, Fontanillas P, Gonzalez JR, Joshi PK, Karhunen V, Kleinman A, Levin RZ, Lill CM, Meddens GA, Muntané G, Sanchez-Roige S, Rooij FJV, Taskesen E, Wu Y, Zhang F, 23and Me Research Team , eQTLgen Consortium , International Cannabis Consortium , Social Science Genetic Association Consortium , Auton A, Boardman JD, Clark DW, Conlin A, Dolan CC, Fischbacher U, Groenen PJF, Harris KM, Hasler G, Hofman A, Ikram MA, Jain S, Karlsson R, Kessler RC, Kooyman M, MacKillop J, Männikkö M, Morcillo-Suarez C, McQueen MB, Schmidt KM, Smart MC, Sutter M, Thurik AR, Uitterlinden AG, White J, Wit H, Yang J, Bertram L, Boomsma DI, Esko T, Fehr E, Hinds DA, Johannesson M, Kumari M, Laibson D, Magnusson PKE, Meyer MN, Navarro A, Palmer AA, Pers TH, Posthuma D, Schunk D, Stein MB, Svento R, Tiemeier H, Timmers PRHJ, Turley P, Ursano RJ, Wagner GG, Wilson JF, Gratten J, Lee JJ, Cesarini D, Benjamin DJ, Koellinger PD, Beauchamp JP

Nat. Genet. 51 (2) 245-257 [2019-02-00; online 2019-01-14]

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.

NGI Uppsala (SNP&SEQ Technology Platform) [Service]

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PubMed 30643258

DOI 10.1038/s41588-018-0309-3

Crossref 10.1038/s41588-018-0309-3

10.1038/s41588-018-0309-3