Ghorbani M, Al-Manei K, Naud S, Healy K, Gabarrini G, Sobkowiak MJ, Chen P, Ray S, Akber M, Muschiol S, Bogdanovic G, Bergman P, Ljungman P, Buggert M, Ljunggren HG, Pin E, Nowak P, Aleman S, Sällberg Chen M
Front Immunol 13 (-) 1079995 [2023-01-10; online 2023-01-10]
Coevolution of microbiome and immunity at mucosal sites is essential for our health. Whether the oral microbiome, the second largest community after the gut, contributes to the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines is not known. We investigated the baseline oral microbiome in individuals in the COVAXID clinical trial receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Participants (n=115) included healthy controls (HC; n=57) and people living with HIV (PLHIV; n=58) who met the study selection criteria. Vaccine-induced Spike antibodies in saliva and serum from 0 to 6 months were assessed and comparative analyses were performed against the individual salivary 16S ASV microbiome diversity. High- versus low vaccine responders were assessed on general, immunological, and oral microbiome features. Our analyses identified oral microbiome features enriched in high- vs. low-responders among healthy and PLHIV participants. In low-responders, an enrichment of Gram-negative, anaerobic species with proteolytic activity were found including Campylobacter, Butyrivibrio, Selenomonas, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Leptotrichia, Megasphaera, Prevotella and Stomatobaculum. In high-responders, enriched species were mainly Gram-positive and saccharolytic facultative anaerobes: Abiotrophia, Corynebacterium, Gemella, Granulicatella, Rothia, and Haemophilus. Combining identified microbial features in a classifier using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) yielded scores of 0.879 (healthy controls) to 0.82 (PLHIV), supporting the oral microbiome contribution in the long-term vaccination outcome. The present study is the first to suggest that the oral microbiome has an impact on the durability of mucosal immunity after Covid-19 vaccination. Microbiome-targeted interventions to enhance long-term duration of mucosal vaccine immunity may be exploited.