Linkage mapping and genome annotation give novel insights into gene family expansions and regional recombination rate variation in the painted lady (Vanessa cardui) butterfly.

Shipilina D, Näsvall K, Höök L, Vila R, Talavera G, Backström N

Genomics 114 (6) 110481 [2022-11-00; online 2022-09-14]

Characterization of gene family expansions and crossing over is crucial for understanding how organisms adapt to the environment. Here, we develop a high-density linkage map and detailed genome annotation of the painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) - a non-diapausing, highly polyphagous species famous for its long-distance migratory behavior and almost cosmopolitan distribution. Our results reveal a complex interplay between regional recombination rate variation, gene duplications and transposable element activity shaping the genome structure of the painted lady. We identify several lineage specific gene family expansions. Their functions are mainly associated with protein and fat metabolism, detoxification, and defense against infection - critical processes for the painted lady's unique life-history. Furthermore, the detailed recombination maps allow us to characterize the regional recombination landscape, data that reveal a strong effect of chromosome size on the recombination rate, a limited impact of GC-biased gene conversion and a positive association between recombination and short interspersed elements.

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NGI Stockholm (Genomics Production) [Service]

National Genomics Infrastructure [Service]

PubMed 36115505

DOI 10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110481

Crossref 10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110481

pii: S0888-7543(22)00226-9

Publications 9.5.0