Wennman A, Jernerén F, Hamberg M, Oliw EH
J. Biol. Chem. 287 (38) 31757-31765 [2012-09-14; online 2012-07-24]
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) contain a hydrophobic substrate channel with the conserved Gly/Ala determinant of regio- and stereospecificity and a conserved Leu residue near the catalytic non-heme iron. Our goal was to study the importance of this region (Gly(332), Leu(336), and Phe(337)) of a lipoxygenase with catalytic manganese (13R-MnLOX). Recombinant 13R-MnLOX oxidizes 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to 13R-, 11(S or R)-, and 9S-hydroperoxy metabolites (∼80-85, 15-20, and 2-3%, respectively) by suprafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygenation. Replacement of Phe(337) with Ile changed the stereochemistry of the 13-hydroperoxy metabolites of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 (from ∼100% R to 69-74% S) with little effect on regiospecificity. The abstraction of the pro-S hydrogen of 18:2n-6 was retained, suggesting antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygenation. Replacement of Leu(336) with smaller hydrophobic residues (Val, Ala, and Gly) shifted the oxygenation from C-13 toward C-9 with formation of 9S- and 9R-hydroperoxy metabolites of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Replacement of Gly(332) and Leu(336) with larger hydrophobic residues (G332A and L336F) selectively augmented dehydration of 13R-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9Z,11E,15Z-trienoic acid and increased the oxidation at C-13 of 18:1n-6. We conclude that hydrophobic replacements of Leu(336) can modify the hydroperoxide configurations at C-9 with little effect on the R configuration at C-13 of the 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 metabolites. Replacement of Phe(337) with Ile changed the stereospecific oxidation of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 with formation of 13S-hydroperoxides by hydrogen abstraction and oxygenation in analogy with soybean LOX-1.