Diagnostics 10 (11) 936 [2020-11-11; online 2020-11-11]
There is growing evidence that lymphatic system plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Here, for the first time, the metabolome of interstitial fluid is analyzed in patients with arterial hypertension. Due to ethical issues to obtain human interstitial fluid samples, this study included only oncological patients after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). These patients were matched into hypertensive (n = 29) and normotensive (n = 35) groups with similar oncological status. Simultaneous evaluation of interstitial fluid, plasma, and urine was obtained by combining high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) spectroscopy with chemometric analysis. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) provided a clear differentiation between the hypertension and normotensive group, with the discrimination visible in each biofluid. In interstitial fluid nine potential metabolomic biomarkers for hypertension could be identified (creatinine, proline, pyroglutamine, glycine, alanine, 1-methylhistidine, the lysyl group of albumin, threonine, lipids), seven distinct markers in plasma (creatinine, mannose, isobutyrate, glycine, alanine, lactate, acetate, ornithine), and seven respectively in urine (methylmalonate, citrulline, phenylacetylglycine, fumarate, citrate, 1-methylnicotinamide, trans-aconitate). Biomarkers in plasma and urine allowed for the identification of specific biochemical pathways involved in hypertension, as previously suggested. Analysis of the interstitial fluid metabolome provided additional biomarkers compared to plasma or urine. Those biomarkers reflected primarily alterations in the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, and indicated increased levels of oxidative stress/inflammation in patients with hypertension.