Single-cell transcriptomics of human traumatic brain injury reveals activation of endogenous retroviruses in oligodendroglia.

Garza R, Sharma Y, Atacho DAM, Thiruvalluvan A, Abu Hamdeh S, J├Ânsson ME, Horvath V, Adami A, Ingelsson M, Jern P, Hammell MG, Englund E, Kirkeby A, Jakobsson J, Marklund N

Cell Rep - (-) 113395 [2023-11-08; online 2023-11-08]

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of chronic brain impairment and results in a robust, but poorly understood, neuroinflammatory response that contributes to the long-term pathology. We used single-nuclei RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) to study transcriptomic changes in different cell populations in human brain tissue obtained acutely after severe, life-threatening TBI. This revealed a unique transcriptional response in oligodendrocyte precursors and mature oligodendrocytes, including the activation of a robust innate immune response, indicating an important role for oligodendroglia in the initiation of neuroinflammation. The activation of an innate immune response correlated with transcriptional upregulation of endogenous retroviruses in oligodendroglia. This observation was causally linked in vitro using human glial progenitors, implicating these ancient viral sequences in human neuroinflammation. In summary, this work provides insight into the initiating events of the neuroinflammatory response in TBI, which has therapeutic implications.

Clinical Genomics Lund [Service]

PubMed 37967557

DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.113395

Crossref 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.113395

pii: S2211-1247(23)01407-9

Publications 9.5.0