Lindau R, Vondra S, Spreckels J, Solders M, Svensson-Arvelund J, Berg G, Pollheimer J, Kaipe H, Jenmalm MC, Ernerudh J
J Reprod Immunol 146 (-) 103330 [2021-08-00; online 2021-05-12]
During pregnancy, the semi-allogeneic nature of the foetus requires maternal immune adaption and acquisition of tolerance at the foetal-maternal interface. Macrophages with regulatory properties and regulatory T (Treg) cells are central in promoting foetal tolerance and are enriched in the decidua (the uterine endometrium during pregnancy). Although tissue-resident decidual stromal cells (DSC) have been implicated in regulatory functions, it is not known if they are able to induce the regulatory phenotype of macrophages and T-cells. In this study we report that maternally derived DSC are able to induce homeostatic M2 macrophages and Treg cells. CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T-cells from healthy non-pregnant women were cultured in the presence or absence of conditioned medium (CM) from DSC isolated from 1st trimester and term placentas. DSC-CM alone was able to promote the survival of macrophages and to induce a regulatory CD14brightCD163+CD209+CD86dim phenotype, typical for decidual macrophages and similar to that induced by M-CSF. Interestingly, DSC-CM was also able to overrule the pro-inflammatory effects of GM-CSF by upregulating CD14, CD163 and CD209. Protein-profiling showed that M-CSF was secreted by DSC, and blocking of M-CSF partially reversed the M2 phenotype and reduced viability. DSC-CM also expanded CD25brightFoxp3+ Treg cells, an expansion that was abolished by a SMAD3-inhibitor, indicating the contribution of TGF-β signaling. In conclusion, our findings collectively emphasize the role of tissue-resident stromal cells in shaping the tolerogenic environment at the foetal-maternal interface.