Eriksson K, Lundmark A, Delgado LF, Hu YOO, Fei G, Lee L, Fei C, Catrina AI, Jansson L, Andersson AF, Yucel-Lindberg T
Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 12 (-) 841139 [2022-03-14; online 2022-03-14]
Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two widespread chronic inflammatory diseases with a previously suggested association. The objective of the current study was to compare the oral microbial composition and host´s inflammatory mediator profile of saliva samples obtained from subjects with periodontitis, with and without RA, as well as to predict biomarkers, of bacterial pathogens and/or inflammatory mediators, for classification of samples associated with periodontitis and RA. Salivary samples were obtained from 53 patients with periodontitis and RA and 48 non-RA with chronic periodontitis. The microbial composition was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and compared across periodontitis patients with and without RA. Levels of inflammatory mediators were determined using a multiplex bead assay, compared between the groups and correlated to the microbial profile. The achieved data was analysed using PCoA, DESeq2 and two machine learning algorithms, OPLS-DA and sPLS-DA. Differential abundance DESeq2 analyses showed that the four most highly enriched (log2 FC >20) amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) in the non-RA periodontitis group included Alloprevotella sp., Prevotella sp., Haemophilus sp., and Actinomyces sp. whereas Granulicatella sp., Veillonella sp., Megasphaera sp., and Fusobacterium nucleatum were the most highly enriched ASVs (log2 FC >20) in the RA group. OPLS-DA with log2 FC analyses demonstrated that the top ASVs with the highest importance included Vampirovibrio sp. having a positive correlation with non-RA group, and seven ASVs belonging to Sphingomonas insulae, Sphingobium sp., Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, Delftia acidovorans, Aquabacterium spp. and Sphingomonas echinoides with a positive correlation with RA group. Among the detected inflammatory mediators in saliva samples, TWEAK/TNFSF12, IL-35, IFN-α2, pentraxin-3, gp130/sIL6Rb, sIL-6Ra, IL-19 and sTNF-R1 were found to be significantly increased in patients with periodontitis and RA compared to non-RA group with periodontitis. Moreover, correlations between ASVs and inflammatory mediators using sPLS-DA analysis revealed that TWEAK/TNFSF12, pentraxin-3 and IL-19 were positively correlated with the ASVs Sphingobium sp., Acidovorax delafieldii, Novosphingobium sp., and Aquabacterium sp. Our results suggest that the combination of microbes and host inflammatory mediators could be more efficient to be used as a predictable biomarker associated with periodontitis and RA, as compared to microbes and inflammatory mediators alone.