A Fatty Diet Induces a Jejunal Ketogenesis Which Inhibits Local SGLT1-Based Glucose Transport via an Acetylation Mechanism-Results from a Randomized Cross-Over Study between Iso-Caloric High-Fat versus High-Carbohydrate Diets in Healthy Volunteers.

Elebring E, Wallenius V, Casselbrant A, Docherty NG, Roux CWL, Marschall HU, Fändriks L

Nutrients 14 (9) - [2022-05-07; online 2022-05-07]

Insights into the nature of gut adaptation after different diets enhance the understanding of how food modifications can be used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim was to understand how diets, enriched in fat or carbohydrates, affect glucose absorption in the human healthy jejunum, and what mechanisms are involved. Fifteen healthy subjects received, in randomised order and a crossover study design, two weeks of iso-caloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD). Following each dietary period, jejunal mucosa samples were retrieved and assessed for protein expression using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Functional characterisation of epithelial glucose transport was assessed ex vivo using Ussing chambers. Regulation of SGLT1 through histone acetylation was studied in vitro in Caco-2 and human jejunal enteroid monolayer cultures. HFD, compared to HCD, decreased jejunal Ussing chamber epithelial glucose transport and the expression of apical transporters for glucose (SGLT1) and fructose (GLUT5), while expression of the basolateral glucose transporter GLUT2 was increased. HFD also increased protein expression of the ketogenesis rate-limiting enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) and decreased the acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac). Studies in Caco-2 and human jejunal enteroid monolayer cultures indicated a ketogenesis-induced activation of sirtuins, in turn decreasing SGLT1 expression. Jejunal glucose absorption is decreased by a fat-enriched diet, via a ketogenesis-induced alteration of histone acetylation responsible for the silencing of SGLT1 transcription. The work relates to a secondary outcome in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02088853).

Integrated Microscopy Technologies Gothenburg [Service]

PubMed 35565929

DOI 10.3390/nu14091961

Crossref 10.3390/nu14091961

pmc: PMC9100393
pii: nu14091961
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02088853

Publications 9.5.0