Glycocholic acid and butyrate synergistically increase vitamin D-induced calcium uptake in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.

Casselbrant A, Fändriks L, Wallenius V

Bone Rep 13 (-) 100294 [2020-12-00; online 2020-07-03]

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) substantially decreases intestinal calcium absorption and may eventually lead to bone resorption. This is likely a consequence of bile diversion from the alimentary limb, as the presence of bile seems necessary for vitamin D-mediated calcium uptake. We recently suggested that the mediating mechanism may be a down-regulation of the vitamin D co-activator heat-shock protein (Hsp)90β. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may have effects on both active and passive calcium absorption. To identify mechanisms in vitro that may be responsible for the decreased calcium absorption after RYGB. We hypothesized that bile, alone or in concert with nutritional compounds, could be of importance. Caco-2 cells were grown confluent on semi-permeable membranes in a double-chamber setup to mimic small intestinal mucosa. The effect of bile acids chenodeoxycholic, lithocholic, glycocholic and taurocholic acid, with and without the addition of the fatty-acid butyrate, were tested for their effects on Hsp90β expression and active and passive calcium-flux monitored using radioactive 45Ca. We initially found that whole human bile, but only together with the fatty acid butyrate, potently induced Hsp90β expression. In line with this, a single bile acid, e.g. glycocholic acid (GCA), in combination with butyrate, increased Hsp90β expression (40 ± 13% vs. GCA, butyrate or vehicle alone; p < 0,001; n = 14-25). Further, this combination together with vitamin D increased the passive gradient-driven flux of calcium, compared to stimulation with vitamin D alone or in combination with either GCA or butyrate (880 ± 217% vs. vitamin D and GCA or butyrate, or vitamin D only; p = 0,01-0.006; n = 5-11). Surprisingly, this combination had no effect on active calcium transport in the absence of calcium gradient. The combination of GCA and butyrate increased gradient-driven calcium uptake up to 9-fold in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, but had no effect on active calcium absorption. This effect was mediated via the vitamin D receptor co-activator Hsp90β.

Integrated Microscopy Technologies Gothenburg [Service]

PubMed 32715032

DOI 10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100294

Crossref 10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100294

pmc: PMC7371747
pii: S2352-1872(20)30054-1

Publications 9.5.0