APP-BACE1 Interaction and Intracellular Localization Regulate Aβ Production in iPSC-Derived Cortical Neurons.

Roselli S, Satir TM, Camacho R, Fruhwürth S, Bergström P, Zetterberg H, Agholme L

Cell Mol Neurobiol 43 (7) 3653-3668 [2023-10-00; online 2023-06-24]

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by amyloid β (Aβ)-containing plaques. Generation of Aβ from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by two enzymes, β- and γ-secretase, has therefore been in the AD research spotlight for decades. Despite this, how the physical interaction of APP with the secretases influences APP processing is not fully understood. Herein, we compared two genetically identical human iPSC-derived neuronal cell types: low Aβ-secreting neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) and high Aβ-secreting mature neurons, as models of low versus high Aβ production. We investigated levels of substrate, enzymes and products of APP amyloidogenic processing and correlated them with the proximity of APP to β- and γ-secretase in endo-lysosomal organelles. In mature neurons, increased colocalization of full-length APP with the β-secretase BACE1 correlated with increased β-cleavage product sAPPβ. Increased flAPP/BACE1 colocalization was mainly found in early endosomes. In the same way, increased colocalization of APP-derived C-terminal fragment (CTF) with presenilin-1 (PSEN1), the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, was seen in neurons as compared to NPCs. Furthermore, most of the interaction of APP with BACE1 in low Aβ-secreting NPCs seemed to derive from CTF, the remaining APP part after BACE1 cleavage, indicating a possible novel product-enzyme inhibition. In conclusion, our results suggest that interaction of APP and APP cleavage products with their secretases can regulate Aβ production both positively and negatively. β- and γ-Secretases are difficult targets for AD treatment due to their ubiquitous nature and wide range of substrates. Therefore, targeting APP-secretase interactions could be a novel treatment strategy for AD. Colocalization of APP species with BACE1 in a novel model of low- versus high-Aβ secretion-Two genetically identical human iPSC-derived neuronal cell types: low Aβ-secreting neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) and high Aβ secreting mature neurons, were compared. Increased full-length APP (flAPP)/BACE1 colocalization in early endosomes was seen in neurons, while APP-CTF/BACE1 colocalization was much higher than flAPP/BACE1 colocalization in NPCs, although the cellular location was not determined.

Integrated Microscopy Technologies Gothenburg [Service]

PubMed 37355492

DOI 10.1007/s10571-023-01374-0

Crossref 10.1007/s10571-023-01374-0

pmc: PMC10477112
pii: 10.1007/s10571-023-01374-0

Publications 9.5.0