Hua K, Rocha I, Zhang P, Gustafsson S, Ning Y, Strømme M, Mihranyan A, Ferraz N
Biomacromolecules 17 (3) 1224-1233 [2016-03-14; online 2016-03-01]
This work presents an insight into the relationship between cell response and physicochemical properties of Cladophora cellulose (CC) by investigating the effect of CC functional group density on the response of model cell lines. CC was carboxylated by electrochemical TEMPO-mediated oxidation. By varying the amount of charge passed through the electrolysis setup, CC materials with different degrees of oxidation were obtained. The effect of carboxyl group density on the material's physicochemical properties was investigated together with the response of human dermal fibroblasts (hDF) and human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) to the carboxylated CC films. The introduction of carboxyl groups resulted in CC films with decreased specific surface area and smaller total pore volume compared with the unmodified CC (u-CC). While u-CC films presented a porous network of randomly oriented fibers, a compact and aligned fiber pattern was depicted for the carboxylated-CC films. The decrease in surface area and total pore volume, and the orientation and aggregation of the fibers tended to augment parallel to the increase in the carboxyl group density. hDF and Saos-2 cells presented poor cell adhesion and spreading on u-CC, which gradually increased for the carboxylated CC as the degree of oxidation increased. It was found that a threshold value in carboxyl group density needs be reached to obtain a carboxylated-CC film with cytocompatibility comparable to commercial tissue culture material. Hence, this study demonstrates that a normally bioinert nanomaterial can be rendered bioactive by carefully tuning the density of charged groups on the material surface, a finding that not only may contribute to the fundamental understanding of biointerface phenomena, but also to the development of bioinert/bioactive materials.