Hulander E, Bärebring L, Turesson Wadell A, Gjertsson I, Calder PC, Winkvist A, Lindqvist HM
Nutr J 20 (1) 9 [2021-01-23; online 2021-01-23]
The chronic inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The contribution of diet as a risk factor for CVD among these patients is however not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate if a proposed anti-inflammatory diet improves cardiovascular profile in weight stable patients with RA. Patients (n = 50) with RA were included in a cross-over trial. They were randomized to either a diet rich in whole grain, fatty fish, nuts, vegetables and fruit and supplemented with probiotics, or a control diet resembling average nutritional intake in Sweden, for ten weeks. After a 4-month washout they switched diet. Participants received food bags and dietary guidelines. Primary outcome was triglyceride (TG) concentration. Secondary outcomes were total-, high density lipoprotein- (HDL) and low density lipoprotein- (LDL) cholesterol, Apolipoprotein-B100 and -A1, lipoprotein composition, plasma phospholipid fatty acids and blood pressure. Forty-seven patients completed at least one period and they remained weight stable. There was a significant between-dietary treatment effect in TG and HDL-cholesterol concentration in favor of intervention (p = 0.007 and p = 0.049, respectively). Likewise, Apolipoprotein-B100/A1 ratio shifted toward a less atherogenic profile in favor of the intervention (p = 0.007). Plasma fatty acids increased in polyunsaturated- and decreased in monounsaturated- and saturated fatty acids between diet periods in favor of the intervention period. Blood lipid profile improved indicating cardioprotective effects from an anti-inflammatory dietary intervention in patients with RA. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02941055 .