Kvarnung M, Taylan F, Nilsson D, Albåge M, Nordenskjöld M, Anderlid BM, Nordgren A, Syk Lundberg E
Clin. Genet. 89 (1) 99-103 [2016-01-00; online 2015-02-14]
Proliferative vasculopathy and hydranencephaly-hydrocephaly syndrome (PVHH, OMIM 225790), also known as Fowler syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in FLVCR2. Hallmarks of the syndrome are glomerular vasculopathy in the central nervous system, severe hydrocephaly, hypokinesia and arthrogryphosis. The disorder is considered prenatally lethal. We report the first patients, a brother and a sister, with Fowler syndrome and survival beyond infancy. The patients present a phenotype of severe intellectual and neurologic disability with seizures, absence of functional movements, and no means of communication. Imaging of the brain showed calcifications, profound ventriculomegaly with only a thin edging of the cerebral cortex and hypoplastic cerebellum. Investigation with whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed, in both patients, a homozygous pathogenic mutation in FLVCR2, c.1289C>T, compatible with a diagnosis of Fowler syndrome. The results highlight the power of combining WES with a thorough clinical examination in order to identify disease-causing mutations in patients whose clinical presentation differs from previously described cases. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that Fowler syndrome is a diagnosis to consider, not only prenatally but also in severely affected children with gross ventriculomegaly on brain imaging.