David D, Fino J, Oliveira R, Dória S, Morton CC
Gene 887 (-) 147737 [2023-12-15; online 2023-08-23]
Naturally occurring balanced, unbalanced, and complex chromosomal rearrangements have been reported to cause pathogenic genomic or genetic variants leading to infertility and recurrent miscarriage. Therefore, balanced chromosomal rearrangements were used as genomic signposts for identification of candidate genes or genomic loci associated with male infertility due to defects of spermatogenesis, or with recurrent miscarriage. In three male probands, structural chromosomal variants and copy number variants were identified at nucleotide resolution by long-insert genome sequencing approaches and Sanger sequencing. The pathogenic potential of these and affected candidate genes was assessed based on convergent genomic and genotype-phenotype correlation data. Identification of balanced chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints and interpretation in the context of their genomic background of structural and copy number variants led us to conclude that the infertility due to oligoasthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia is most likely associated with a position effect on YIPF5 and SPATC1L, respectively. In a third proband with intellectual disability and recurrent miscarriage, disruption of CAMK2B causing autosomal dominant, intellectual developmental disorder 54 and increased meiotic segregation during gametogenesis of a der(22) are responsible for the reported phenotype. Our data further support the existence of loci at 5q23 and 21q22.3 for these spermatogenesis defects and highlight the importance of the naturally occurring balanced chromosomal rearrangements for assessment of the pathogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, we show comorbidities due to the same balanced chromosomal rearrangement caused by different pathogenic mechanisms.